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Gujarat is located in western part of the India. The name comes from ‘Gujara’ meaning a branch of the White Huns. Gujara also is the name of a pastoral caste (social class). Gujarat is known for its vast culture and rich heritage. Gujratis are known to be very friendly in nature and happy person. There are many tourist places as well. The capital of the Gujarat is Gandhinagar.


Gujarat was central areas of the Indus Valley Civilisation which included  ancient metropolitan cities like LothalDholavira, and Gola Dhoro.  India's first port was established in lothal. There were almost 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins in Gujarat found till date.

Mauryan regime appointed Pushyagupta, a Vaishya, as the governor of Saurashtra from 322BC to 294BC. He built a dam on the Sudarshan lake. There was also an Indo-Greek defeat in Gujarat of Demetrius.

Medieval history:-

Bhima I of Chalukya Dynasty built Sun Temple of Modera, in 1026 known as one of the finest examples of stepwell architecture of Gujarat.

The Arab rulers tried to expand their empire southeast but they were were driven out of Gujarat.

In the late 8th century, Gujarat  was ruled by the north Indian Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty and the southern part of Gujarat was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty

From 1297 to 1300, Alauddin Khalji, the Turko-Afghan sultan incorporated Gujarat into the Delhi Sultanate.

Aurangzeb was born in Gujarat, and was the sixth Mughal Emperor. He was made Subahdar of Gujarat.

The British East India Company wrested control of much of Gujarat from the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1802–1803. Many local rulers, notably the Rajput Maratha Gaekwad Maharajas of Baroda (Vadodara), made a separate peace with the British and acknowledged British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule.

An epidemic outbreak in 1812 killed half the population of Gujarat.

Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency. From 1818 to 1947, most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar, Kutch and northern and eastern Gujarat were divided into hundreds of princely states, but several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad, Broach (Bharuch), Kaira (Kheda), Panchmahal and Surat, were governed directly by British officials.


It is located in the western coast of the country, with the Arabian sea on one of its side. Gujarat has an area of 75,686 sq mi (196,030 km2) with the longest coastline (24% of Indian sea coast) 1,600 kilometres (990 mi), dotted with 41 ports: one major, 11 intermediate and 29 minor. It is fifth largest state of India according to the area. It shares its boundary with Pakistan, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Mahrashtra.


There is diverse climate in different parts of the state. Plains are very hot and dry in summer. In winter, average temperature is 29 degree and in night its 12 degree. Day are mostly sunny with less rainfall.


Gujarat has various types of tourist places such as the archaeological sites, historical sites, temples, sea, hilly areas, wildlife tourism etc. Some are as follows:-

Hill stations:-

·        Wilson hills

·        Saputara hills.

·        Paliatana

·        Pavagadh

Historical places:-

·        Laxmi Vilas palace in Vadodra

·        Sabarmati Ashram

·        Jain Temples

·        Kirti Stambh

·        Dwarkadish temples

·        Somnath


·        Gir National  Park

·        Marine National Park

·        Kutch Bird Sanctuary


Major population speaks and write in Gujarati language. The ‘Garba’ dance of Gujarat is world famous and it is mostly performed in the Navratri. Gujaratis perform it in their traditional attire ‘Ghagra-choli’.  Apart from this ‘Dandiya’ is also performed in Gujarat.


Primary education, secondary education, higher education is quite well in the state. There is CBSE, ICSE as well as Gujarat secondary and higher secondary board. Also, there are many private institutes in the state. The language used is Gujarati, Hindi and English.

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